레오니드 슈콜니코프 Leonid Shkolnikov | 벨라루스CPSU대표
… 레닌주의시대에는 국가독점이 지배적이었다. 그들의 경쟁과 팽창주의적열망은 2번의 피비린내나는 세계대전으로 이어졌다. 오늘날에는 자본집중의 법칙에 따라 세계독점, 무엇보다 세계금융올리가르히(신흥재벌)의 다양한 단위가 지배적이 됐다.
… 세계금융올리가르히의 여러집단은 출현시기, 획득한 권력, 제국주의하에서 불가피한 파시즘화의 진행정도에 따라 상당히 다르다. 이들은 억압과 협력의 대상인 프롤레타리아와 민족해방운동세력과 첨예하게 대립하고있을뿐아니라 분할없는 세계지배와 전세계 약탈과 착취의 열매를 나누는데서 패권을 차지하는 근본적인 문제를 두고 격렬하게 대립하고있으며 대립할것이다.
그들의 기반이 있는 제국주의국가들과 밀접하게 결합된 세계올리가르히는 다른 새로운 제국주의 내부모순을 가져왔다. 즉 지역적이고 지엽적인 제국주의를 포함해 서로 다른 장점을 지닌 민족적부르주아지와 계급과의 모순이다. 이 모든 모순은 세계대전의 위험을 안고있다.
… 미국·EU(유럽연합)의 올리가르히는 소련의 붕괴로부터 막대한 이익을 얻었고 소련민중의 부를 수탈했으며 그지역의 하수인인 <소비에트>신흥부자가 국가를 강탈하고 올리가르히가 되는것을 허용했다. 그러나 미국·EU올리가르히는 세계올리가르히집단에 합류해 인류의 약탈과 착취에 가담하고 세계를 공동지배하려는 러시아올리가르히들의 기대에 부응하지 않았고 이제는 소비에트<수탈자>들을 수탈하고있다.
… (러시아는) 서방제국주의의 팽창에 맞서는 지역민족해방운동의 동반자로 나토의 침략에 맞서 이들 국가의 자주권을 수호하는데 긍정적인 역할을 했다. 러시아는 또한 2020 하이브리드침략으로부터 동맹국인 국가자본주의 벨라루스를 방어하기 위해 행동했다.
… 도네츠크·루간스크민중들은 현키예프친미반데라군부의 계속되는 무장공격에 대응할 역량이 충분치않았기때문에 반파쇼투쟁을 우선하며 사회주의혁명과업을 미루면서까지 러시아올리가르히정부와 일시적으로 공조할수밖에 없었다.
… 우크라이나영토에서는 실제로 우크라이나와 러시아간이 아니라 앵글로색슨과 유럽올리가르히의 침략적파쇼동맹을 한측으로 하고 러시아올리가르히를 다른측으로 하는 갈등이 있다. 따라서 도네츠크·루간스크·러시아·벨라루스, 전체소비에트와 전세계근로민중의 이익을 고려하지않고 우크라이나전에 대한 앵글로색슨유럽과 러시아올리가르히의 책임을 같은 판에 올리려는 시도는 자본주의하에서의 정의의 전쟁과 부정의의 전쟁에 대한 맑스주의의 가르침, 즉 파시즘을 객관적으로 돕는 현대수정주의의 개정판이다.
… 반전·반파시스트문제는 현대국제공산주의운동의 핵심이다. 왜냐하면 모두를 위해 사회적으로 정의롭고 번영하는 무계급공동주의사회로의 혁명적변혁은 인류가 살아남아야만 가능하기때문이다. 더욱이 전쟁을 억제한다는것은 전쟁을 일으킨 제국주의를 제거한다는것을 의미한다. 왜냐하면 초과이윤을 얻기 위해 세계지배를 목표로 하는 군사력확장 없이는 생존할수 없기때문이다.
… 떠오르는 반파시스트전선의 주요타격대상은 파시즘으로 성장한 세계금융올리가르히의 앵글로색슨족과 유럽군대여야한다. 그들의 패배는 인류의 축적된 문제들을 해결하는 유일한 길인 세계제국주의에 대항한 세계사회주의혁명의 승리를 위한 주요조건이다.
The situation in Ukraine and the world communist movement
Leonid Shkolnikov | Secretary of the Central Committee of the CPSU
I express my sincere gratitude to the organizers for the invitation to such an important theoretical conference dedicated to the modern theory and tactics of the international communist movement.
… Recently, the Communist parties have taken opposite positions on the issue of the Special Operation of the Russian government in Ukraine.
In this case, some comrades apply his well-known and absolutely correct formula for the situation of Lenin’s time, fully confirmed by revolutionary practice. … In their opinion, in the current Ukrainian situation, the communists should equally fight for the defeat in this operation of both the alliance of Anglo-Saxon and European oligarchs, who arrogantly, fascistly rule the Ukrainian part of the Soviet territory, together with the Bandera satellites reanimated by them; and the Russian oligarchic government, which sees in this hosting a threat to their security and economic interests.
Other comrades, on the contrary, referring to the specifics of modern imperialism and the actual situation of the proletariat both in individual countries, including Ukraine, and on a global scale, sympathizing with the national liberation struggle of the population of the DPR, LPR and the struggle against fascism of the working people of Ukraine, took the position of support of the Russian special operation in Ukraine.
… The departure from Marxism-Leninism is carried out by the first of these comrades on the basis of (1) dogmatic reading of Lenin, the indiscriminate extension of his conclusion, made at the beginning of the 20th century, to the specific Ukrainian situation of the 21st century; and (2) revisionist attitude towards Marx in his doctrine of just and unjust wars under capitalism. Thus, the position of the former is an example of modern opportunism.
… The theoretical analysis of modern capitalism and the correlation of modern class forces both locally and in the world shows, that capitalism remains at the stage of imperialism, but at the final, global stage of its development, which has quite definite features that require their consideration in the development of victorious tactics.
The basis of our theory is still the science of social life … However, more than 100 years have passed since the moment when Lenin’s work “Imperialism, the Highest Stage of Capitalism” was written, and during this time imperialism and the balance of class forces both locally and on the planet as a whole could not but change.
Thus, in Lenin’s time, national monopolies dominated, and the competition between them and their predatory aspirations led to two bloody world wars. Now, since the middle of the 20th century, according to the Law of continuous concentration of capital, world monopolies and, above all, world financial oligarchies have begun to dominate.
… The Anglo-Saxon world financial oligarchy, based in the USA and Great Britain, was the first to reach the world level. Having grown fat on supplies to the belligerents in World War II and gained access to nuclear weapons, they took over the baton of world domination from the defeated German imperialism, including its fascist methods.
… However, the interests of Russian capital in the Ukrainian case, as well as in the Syrian, Venezuelan and Belarusian cases, coincide with the momentary interests of (1) the Soviet people as a whole; (2) the national liberation struggle of the peoples of the DPR and LPR; (3) the anti-fascist interests of the entire Ukrainian people, and (4) world anti-fascist struggle.
… As for the peoples of the DPR and LPR, the progressive nature of their national liberation interests is beyond doubt, and since they do not have sufficient forces to defend them from the Kyiv American-Bandera junta, which does not stop continuous armed attacks, they have to go for a temporary cooperation with the government of the Russian oligarchs, putting the rebuff to fascism at the forefront and pushing back for a while the task of the socialist revolution. … We emphasize that the aggressor in the Ukrainian case is not Russia, but the United States, Great Britain and the EU states, which sent their Kyiv satellites to the war with the DPR and LPR and are directly involved in this war with finances, arms supplies, sending instructors and even combat units. Not far off is a direct invasion of the NATO troops into the Soviet territory in the event of the defeat of the Nazis in Ukraine, as was the case in 1950 on the Korean Peninsula, when the South Korean army organized and armed by the United States was thrown by them into battle in the North against the young DPR and began to suffer defeat when Kim Il Sung’s Korean People’s Army liberated almost the entire Korean Peninsula in an immediate counteroffensive.
The anti-fascist interests of the Ukrainian people were subjected to an open genocide as a result of the bloody coup in Kyiv in 2014 organized by the United States and the European Union, the planting of collaborationist rule based on the reanimated Bandera fascism, and also as a result of their creation of a powerful comprehensively developed foothold in Ukraine over 8 years to attack Russia, Belarus and their Union State are also undeniable. … This war was unleashed after the referendums in the DPR and LPR at the behest of Washington by the Kyiv junta, and the preventive strike was only a tried and tested military tactic against the aggressor, who was preparing for a decisive attack on the DPR and LPR and an attack on Russia.
… Let us note that the prevention of a war by Russia against itself, Belarus and their Union State by pro-fascist Ukraine and its foreign masters is in the fundamental interests of the Russian and Belarusian workers and their labor allies.
Finally, if someone thinks that there is a war going on in Ukraine between Ukraine and Russia, then this is naive. …
In view of the foregoing, an attempt to put the responsibility of the Anglo-Saxon and European oligarchy, on the one hand, and the Russian one, on the other, for the war in Ukraine, without taking into account the interests of the working people of the DPR, on the same level in the Ukrainian issue. LPR, Russia, Belarus, the entire Soviet people and the working people of the whole world, is a revision of the Marxist doctrine of just and unjust wars under capitalism and, consequently, modern opportunism that objectively helps fascism.
… And if the victorious arsenal of Stalin’s tactics during the Second World War included direct cooperation with the “democratic” imperialism of the United States and Great Britain against European fascism led by Hitler’s Germany, then an indispensable component in assessing the war in Ukraine, in addition to the aggression of the alliance of Anglo-Saxon and European fascism against anti-fascist and the national liberation movement in Ukraine, tthere should be recognition of the progressive role of assistance to them from the “democratic” Russian oligarchic government, since the peoples of the DPR, LPR, and Ukraine clearly do not have enough forces to repel aggression on their own. This is an elementary tactical question – the question of the obligatory use of inter-imperialist contradictions in the interests of victory in the struggle for peace, democracy and socialism.
… It is no coincidence that the Communists from the Workers’ Party of Korea unequivocally support Russia’s special operation in Ukraine, because they are based on the correct theory and tactics of Kimirsenism-Kimjongirism, which is the direct heir of Marxism-Leninism-Stalinism, the theory and tactics of communism, fully justified in the revolutionary practice on the Korean Peninsula in the era of the global stage of the imperialist stage of capitalism. The Korean people, under the leadership of communists, were able to repulse the first attack on Korean and world socialism by the alliance of the Anglo-Saxon and European oligarchies in 1950-1953 in the Patriotic War of Liberation; built Korean socialism in the wartime conditions basing on their reliance on independence and their own forces and resources. The DPRK is confidently moving towards communism in the same cruel conditions of the all-round onslaught of global capital, building a powerful and prosperous socialist power in the DPRK and solving the problem of reliable security of the country thanks to the Songun policy, including equipping the Korean People’s Army with modern weapons of mass destruction, which made impossible the attack on the DPRK.
Today, the proletariat and its labor allies of the NATO states that have unleashed aggression in Ukraine and are participating in it.
… The anti-war, anti-fascist question becomes the main one in the modern communist movement, since the revolutionary transformation of human society into a socially just and prosperous for all, a classless communist society, is possible only if humanity survives. In addition, curbing war means destroying its bearer – modern imperialism, because without military expansion aimed at world domination for obtaining super-profits, modern imperialism is unable to survive. Therefore, it is necessary to organize the general, united assistance of all progressive forces working to the collapse of the aggression of the USA, Great Britain, and other NATO states in Ukraine.
Of course, we should not idealize the action of the Russian liberator oligarchs in Ukraine. They have already done and are doing everything to prevent the anti-fascist and national liberation struggle in Ukraine, and the struggle for peace from taking on a socialist character there, which would threaten the power of the oligarchs in Russia itself. This trend must be resolutely opposed. But today to help the fascist Western aggressor to condemn the Russian special operation in Ukraine and break it, and thereby contribute to the victory of fascism in another part of the territory of the USSR, is a betrayal of the class interests of the Soviet working people and the working people of the whole world interested in the revival of the USSR.
… The road to the success of the world socialist revolution, the only one capable today of preventing the self-destruction of mankind and providing a solution to all its problems … the planned maintenance of the world economy, etc., that is, the road to the era of the true history of mankind, communism, today lies through the destruction of neo-fascism, including American-Bandera fascism in Ukraine.
In today’s tactics of the world communist movement, based on an analysis of modern imperialism and the balance of power, it is imperative to recognize the need for a broad Anti-Fascist Front and the direction of its main blow against the Anglo-Saxon and European detachments of the world financial oligarchy that have grown to fascism. Their defeat is the main condition for the overall victory of the world socialist revolution saving humanity from global imperialism.
Disputes regarding the class nature of the events in Ukraine clearly highlighted the weakness of the world communist movement which turned away from the elementary and mandatory task of preparing and implementing the world socialist revolution in the context of globalization, and ttherefore the task of reviving the Leninist-Stalinist COMINTERN. As a result, the we suffer from ideological and organizational pluralism which is used by the reactionary forces as their important reserve. … The sooner this subjective weakness of the world communist movement is overcome, the closer will be the path to the salvation and further well-being of mankind, to the triumph of world communism.